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First calculator with "textbook" input/output?
08-04-2021, 06:37 PM
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RE: First calculator with "textbook" input/output?
(08-04-2021 04:54 PM)Karl-Ludwig Butte Wrote:  According to Wikipedia Casio introduced "Visually Perfect Algebraic Method (V.P.A.M.), Natural Display or Natural V.P.A.M. input methods" with model fx-991S and other "S" series scientific calculators in Japan in 1998.These models are some years earlier than the fx-9860G which was introduced in 2005 (also according to Wikipedia).

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The VPAM input on the fx-991S, fx-115S, and lesser-known fx-992S (a very nice calc!) is sort of rudimentary, certainly nothing that could be mistaken for "textbook" display.

Essentially it's a typical infix-algebraic input like on any 7-segment-display calculator, but there's also a small dot-matrix portion near the left of the display that allows for keying - and displaying - one-argument functions such as sin or ln before their arguments. There wasn't even an entry-line where you could go back and review or edit the whole input expression. I believe that capability was introduced on the W series: fx-115W, fx-991W, and so on. These models called it S-VPAM, or Super Visually Perfect Algebraic Method, and used a single line of text for input.

The ES series introduced textbook input and output, branded as Natural Display or Natural-VPAM, though I don't know whether these predate the fx-9860G.
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RE: First calculator with "textbook" input/output? - Dave Britten - 08-04-2021 06:37 PM

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